Movies: SOLARIS (2002) Explained

Steven Soderbergh’s SOLARIS (2002) is a challenging film. It doesn’t repeat its answers time and time again.  It allows you to make up your mind.  It mostly takes place in the characters’ heads.

Yes, it’s a pretentious art film.  It’s a gratuitously self-indulgent piece of cinema that’s not nearly as profound at it may think it is.  It’s under-plotted, bloated and would have made a better 30-minutes TWILIGHT ZONE episode than a feature film.

But wait!  It’s also a fine true Science Fiction movie. By putting very human characters in extreme situations caused by an unknown, but rational (?) entity, SOLARIS is able to study human emotions.  In an age where cinema-SF has become nearly synonymous with fancy special effects and overblown action sequences, that’s rare and maybe even important.

But there’s no denying that some hints may be required in order to appreciate the film jut a little bit more. If you can tolerate a few paragraphs of random rambling, keep on reading, because I’ll share my own take on the film, and maybe -hopefully!- help you along the way.

Oh, yes:  SPOILERS follow.  Do not read if you haven’t seen the film.

Let’s take a look at the story, stripped down to its bare essentials and very roughly re-arranged in chronological order:

  • Solaris is discovered
  • Psychologist Chris Kelvin (George Clooney) sees Rheya (Natascha McElhone) on the train and then meets her at a party.
  • Chris and Rheya live together; she initially refuses marriage, discovers she’s pregnant, has an abortion.  He doesn’t react well, blames her lack of commitment and storms out of their apartment. She commits suicide. He comes back and discovers her, dead, clutching his favourite poem.
  • Years pass.
  • Around Solaris, the scientists orbiting the planet in the space station start seeing… things. Phantoms from their pasts appear on the station, re-created by Solaris.  The phantoms are usually people (alive or dead) that the scientists long to talk to.
  • This, naturally, causes people some discomfort. Some try to kill their Phantoms.  Some succeed, but are further driven insane when the Phantoms come back to life. Others, like Jeremy Davies’ Snow, are less successful and are killed by their Phantoms in self-defence.
  • Some soldiers/investigators are sent to Solaris by The Company in order to help, but are plagued by the same Phantoms. All (!) commit suicide.
  • The leader of the expedition, Gibarian, makes a desperate plea for help to his old friend Chris.
  • One researcher on the station, Helen Gordon (Viola Davis) discovers a way to destroy Phantoms.
  • A grieving Chris receives the plea and embarks for Solaris.
  • Upon his arrival, he discovers that Snow is spaced out (he doesn’t realize that Snow is a Phantom, and so his puzzled “I don’t know” are in fact genuine memory blanks) and that Gordon is locked in her room.
  • He also sees a boy running around. The boy evades him when he attempts to pursue. Is it Gibarian’s child or a re-creation of the child he would have had with Rheya had she kept it? You pick. The story probably makes more sense (but not that much) with the second interpretation.
  • Not much progress is made until Chris sleeps. While he does that, the planet reads his memory of Rheya and re-creates her.
  • He freaks out, lures her in a lifeboat and sends the lifeboat away from the station.
  • He goes back to sleep, and once again Solaris re-creates Rheya.
  • This time, though, he’s a bit calmer.  Alas, Phantom-Rheya comes to realize that she is a simulacrum of his memories of her. She literally cannot remember her own past, and when she does it’s as if she’s not there (because he was watching her and remembers the events from his perspective)
  • Gordon wants to destroy Rheya, hypothesizes that they may end up carrying the Phantoms back on Earth if they don’t kill her. Chris, becoming more and more attached to Phantom-Rheya, doesn’t agree. Gordon argues that even if Chris doesn’t want to, Rheya will come to him while he sleeps. Chris vows to never sleep again.
  • Gordon reveals to Phantom-Rheya that she wasn’t the first and that Chris sent the first one away.
  • Rheya, driven nuts by the knowledge that she is a re-creation, tries to commit suicide by drinking liquid oxygen. (It could be argued that Chris’ recollection of her as a suicidal woman doesn’t help the re-creation think of better ways to deal with her problem. Then again, an awful lot of people try to kill themselves in this film.)
  • Her attempt fails. Everyone aboard the station sees her come back to life, demonstrating the resilience of all Phantoms.
  • Chris falls asleep (after gulping down some pills; this may have been a suicide attempt or just a few extra-strong sleeping pills.  In light of what happens later, it doesn’t matter one way or the other), has seriously bad dreams (sees multiple versions of Rheya, the child again), is visited by Gibarian (another Phantom, presumably) and upon waking up discovers that Phantom-Rheya went to Gordon in order to ask to be destroyed, which Gordon did with some satisfaction.
  • They discover that Snow is in fact Phantom-Snow, who killed Human-Snow in self-defence whenever the original tried to attack him when he appeared
  • Phantom-Snow points out that Solaris is getting bigger every time the Phantom-destroyer is used (insert techno-babble here as to why this is so. Maybe Solaris is angry at the destruction of its Phantoms), and that the station will soon crash down on the planet.  He recommends evacuation.
  • Chris and Gordon go to the last remaining shuttle.  Gordon enters and starts the engines. Chris stays at the doorway.
  • What follows is a dream/predictive sequence: Chris sees himself back on planet Earth, but as a Phantom who has to re-learn everything in his life and deal with his grief over Rheya all over again.  (Whether he is now truly a Phantom is a matter of interpretation, but I think it make more sense and has more poignancy, if he’s still the Human-Chris imagining himself as a Phantom-Chris.) Thought to ponder: Was this reverie Chris’ own, or was it caused by Solaris in an attempt to “keep” Chris? Or maybe even Rehya’s memory acting through Solaris? (Note: Maybe there is no dream sequence and this happens right before the last bullet of this list, in between his acceptance of Solaris and his last meeting with Rheya.)
  • He shuts down the door to the shuttle and decides to remain aboard the station as it crashes down on Solaris. Self-sacrifice out of guilt for not remembering Rheya “right”? Maybe. But then again, have I mentioned how many people kill themselves at the slightest excuse in this film?
  • Gordon leaves, presumably to return in the sequel. (I’m kidding!)
  • The station crashes into the expanding planet. Solaris “reaches out” to Chris (though the boy Phantom), who accepts.
  • Then the film slides well into transcendental mode, as Chris and Rheya meet again, this time forever happy. Life after death? Solaris triumphant, keeping Chris’ mind occupied like a little pet? Your particular take is as good as mine. I prefer “Screenwriter’s idea of a perfectly weepy ending”, much like the one in TITANIC. Naturally, some will argue that this ending, in fact, is merely Chris’ ultimate retreat from reality, him choosing to live his grief over and over again with whatever Rheya-substitute he can get. Any interpretation (just pick one randomly) should keep you busy the next time you want to argue with another cinephile.

[November 2006: Update! An anonymous correspondent writes to suggest…

I don’t think you got the ending w/ Chris quite right. He had a realization that there was (in fa
ct) a picture in his house. Reya very clearly mentioned that there were no pictures. This revealed to him the possibility of the nature of the being, Reya. If she was only a creation created from Chris’ mind, the memories she had would have to be the same as Chris’, but they were not. He had a glimmer of hope that she was indeed more than just a mere memory and stayed on the ship. You can extrapolate considerably from this.

Hmm, promising! I haven’t yet had time to verify this interpretation, but this would be a fascinating wrinkle to the ending.]

[January 2007: I still haven’t had the time to return to the film, but UK cinephile Dan wrote in to remind me of the thematic links between Chris’s favourite poem, Dylan Thomas’ “And Death Shall Have no Dominion“, and the ending of the film. If nothing else, the link highlights SOLARIS’ thematic exploration of love after death. Chris ends up getting what he most clearly wished for, regardless of the other consequences. True love through death, maybe.]

[March 2008: Jessica writes to add “I could be wrong, but I think that you may have misunderstood Phantom-Snow’s explanation at the end of the film. My understanding is that Solaris did not actually get physically bigger; it only looked that way because the space station had drifted closer to it. According the Phantom-Snow, because Dr.Gordon’s Higgs (Phantom destroying)device used so much power it drained the ship’s battery/power cells, and so the ship was unable to resist Solaris’ gravitational pull. That is why Gordon has to leave right away; the ship only has enough power to send one of the escape pods back to Earth.”]

[December 2009: Nate writes to add: “The ending to Solaris is pretty clear if you follow the literary cues throughout the film. At the dinner party they discuss the idea of God and Rhea (named after the Greek Goddess, the “mother of the Gods”) becomes upset with his atheism, apropos the concept of the afterlife. It is clear that he is swallowed up by Solaris, but they don’t imply that he “died”. The entire movie is in a suspension, a purgatory. Assuming that the last part is part of the afterlife only fits in with the grander stage of the metaphor. He couldn’t resolve his relationship with Rhea on Earth or purgatory (the land of ghosts) because Rhea outside of Solaris was nothing but a facsimile of her essence based on his perception. Assuming Solaris is a metaphor for a platonic God, which is suggested many times, there are mentions of its omniscience, Rhea inside Solaris would be the quintessence of Rhea. The last scene is the afterlife, they will live forever (the cut finger heals). Stanislov Lem is known for his philosophical and existential theories, and this is very apparent in Solaris. When seen through this tradition, the story is actually quite elegant, literal and succinct.”]

Despite the jumbled nature of the synopsis, I think that’s pretty much it. Keep in mind that this film doesn’t have to make perfect sense: It’s more of a psychological-experimental fable than a hard-tech story. It’s no accident if all we get to see of Earth are a few blurry rainy shots: the impression created stands outside of time and pure realism. Oh, and do remember once again that Soderbergh was in his arty-trippy mode when he did this film.

I’ll end up on a note on the book/movie differences: A plot point that got lost in the adaptation is that Solaris, the ocean/planet is intelligent and may in fact try to communicate with the scientists by the use of those “Phantoms”. I don’t think it adds much, though, to consider this explanation given that SOLARIS (2002) is more or less self-consistent without it.  Be advised that reading the book in order to have the film explained to you may result in even greater confusion.

There are still a lot of plot holes, naturally. (I just thought of a few just writing the above, most notably about Phantom-Snow’s incomplete memories and Gordon’s reactions.)

There’s a wealth of symbolic layering in this film (Is it about religion? What about the lock Rheya was holding on the train? Was it a symbol of a mystery he must unlock? [*] etc.), but that type of thing may be be left to better writers and more patient commentators. In the meantime, I’m sufficiently satisfied by the above. SOLARIS is obviously not an audience-friendly film, but on the other hand, it exemplifies a whole lot of what “real science-fiction” is all about. Please be kind to it.

[*]: About the lock: The Soderbergh/Cameron DVD audio commentary is vague about most of the film’s plot, but it does clear up the lock “symbolism”: Soderbergh needed the actress to hold something in her hands, and the lock was the most intriguing prop they could find. Nothing to see here; all symbolism is viewer-supplied!

25 thoughts on “Movies: SOLARIS (2002) Explained

  1. Steve

    “He shuts down the door to the shuttle and decides to remain aboard the station as it crashes down on Solaris. Self-sacrifice out of guilt for not remembering Rheya “right”? Maybe. But then again, have I mentioned how many people kill themselves at the slightest excuse in this film?”

    Did you miss the part where phantom Rheya tells Chris maybe they could somehow be together and happy, but not on earth, and not not on that ship? This is why he stayed behind. He figured out he could hopefully join her on Solaris. And he seemed to realise she wasn’t really Rheya, but still loved her. So I don’t believe he tried to kill himself and then ended up in some hallucination on Solaris. I think he either really joined the phantom Rheya, or the pergatory/afterlife is plausible as well, as that crossed my mind on first viewing. But I so far prefer considering it a happy ending, that he reached another level of existence on Solaris.

  2. Malcolm

    So there are other possible explanations to the ending…
    What if the guy standing outside the pod is not the real thing? He’s a replicant, sorry, phantom and he just realised it when he hears the ‘voices’ from the cockpit…
    then maybe he died with the red pills? So if this is the case, who dreamed him? Perhaps it was Rheya?
    He cuts his finger and it heals, just like a phantom…
    Maybe the earth him is real and the Solaris him is invited back to the fold by the kid?

    Just sayin’ !

  3. Wes

    My take on the entire story was that it was a meditation on existence and that our lives are the sum of choices we make. The entire story is told through the perspective of Kris Kelvin.

    Something conscious on Solaris was able to reach inside the consciousness of the people on-board the space station Prometheus and contact them in a way that was both profound and disturbing.

    By reaching into the emotional imprints left behind by loss and other significant moments in their lives, the crew experienced physical manifestations of these losses or fears or whatever they each experienced as a means of contact by the (as we understand it) conscious entity on the planet.

    Perhaps this is the only way in which Solaris can communicate in a way that has any reference or meaning to the humans on-board the station. However, the result of these manifestations is beyond the humans comprehension, except, perhaps for Gibarian, who directly beckons Kelvin to come to Solaris, because – we assume – that he believes it will provide Chris – perhaps singularly – what he seeks – a chance for redemption.

    Gibarian – after his son manifests on the station, kills himself for reasons that aren’t clear. Perhaps he was unable to come to terms with what he was experiencing. Or perhaps he chooses to end his life holding on to the memory of his dead son rather than replacing him with the newly manifested version, which he also desperately wants to hold on to. The why is left unanswered.

    However, Gibarian’s comment to Kris when he’s dreaming that, “there are no answers, only choices” – I believe is – actually Kris processing what he is experiencing in his subconscious mind through a dialog with his dead friend Gibarian – symbolized by Gibarian’s request to leave the light off.

    Gibarian, for his own reasons, chose to end his life with the memory – albeit painful – of his dead son intact – leaving the simulacrum behind.

    Gordon and Snow have two different perspectives. Gordon has manifested something terrible (alluded to by sounds of violence in her quarters) and yet somehow she can’t stop its return when she kills it. So her goal is to make it disappear completely by using the Higgs-Boson device and then returning to Earth before “it” can return.

    Snow, of course, being the simulacrum of his twin, is putting together his own existence as the story develops. Since we don’t know the purpose of Snow’s manifestation, all we can do is watch him come to the conclusion that he too must stay on-board the Prometheus as it is enveloped by Solaris – we assume – to go back to whence he came.

    So, in the end, as Kris decides to stay, it is then that Solaris truly succeeds in it’s attempt to make the human connection. And represented by Gibarian’s son’s outreached hand, Kris’ consciousness is absorbed or transferred or whatever you want to call it into a plane of existence where he and Rhea can exist free of the fear, grief and loss that defined him.

    That’s my take anyway.

    1. DJ

      Yes Wes. You are able to explain what I believed. He is now “living” on Solaris and has come to terms with his past. What I find interesting, what will humans on earth do with their information about Solaris from Gibson? Go back? Stay away? What would you do?

  4. Michael

    I think Solaris was attempting to get the people on the space station to deal with baggage they carried around. Guilt, loss, loneliness, despair, heartache. I’d like to think that Solaris saw the ability of the organism on the space station to “evolve” was being “retarded” by their emotional baggage they carried. Like any good “shrink”, you bring it out, you look at it, and you talk about it, until it no longer can hurt you. And just as our emotions are pretty messy, our ways of dealing with them are just as bad. As you saw in the movie, Solaris gave them the ability to finally deal with the issue, by bringing their pain to a state of reality. Thereby forcing them to deal with it. And as you can see, each chose a different path. Choice.

    1. Elena

      Okay I can totally relate to this interpretation! 🙂 Really, it is quite an interesting view on the movie, each one of the characters had the possibility to deal with the situation, but they all had different ways of dealing with it… just like people dealing with their psychological problems everyday – it’s either pushing them away or killing them, or they might kill you… (metaphorically speaking), or truly standing up and working out the problem … and that is why there are no answers, just choices!

  5. josh

    I think you may have it wrong with the finger cutting thing. If you remember, Rheya asks him how he got the scar on his finger and he said he cut himself while making food, they exact same scene when he is standing in the pod door. I think when he is thinking that, that it is a memory of right after rheyas death. So not a phantom version of him, and he didn’t kill himself with the pills.

  6. richard


    Interesting movie. The reason I ended up here though was because I could not explain why snow’s phantom was himself. I figured the planet detected unhappiness in each character and thus presented the phantom that would most likely address this (I.e., Chris and Rhea). But one snow killing another snow combined with one snow being the person the other snow would most want to see left me very confused. Though maybe I am just confused. 😉

    1. jon

      snow(fake snow) said his visitor was his brother right? maybe some sorta twin brother !!!

  7. richard

    …also what happened to the security team? And who was the female physicist’s phantom?

    1. Lac

      Yea! I was wondering about that too! We never had it clarified. She herself may be a phantom wanting to come to Earth.

  8. Mark

    There’s no where, that I can tell, an indication as to who Gordon’s phantom was? Does any one have any thoughts as to who it was? The loud bangs coming from her room are meant to indicate that she’s got something in there. But I can’t think of who!

    1. Lac

      Maybe that was the real Gordon and the one in the movie all along was the phantom. That would be a sick twist!

  9. Mark

    The ending where he outstretched his hand to the kid parallels the Michelangelo painting of Adam reaching out to God. Except in the movie man actually reaches God and he ends up in the afterlife. That’s what I got from watching it for the first time there.

  10. K

    A favorite movie. Rheya is the woman we could not live with, yet whom we loved and cannot get out of our mind. Solaris is sentient. Solaris responds to the seeking of resolution in each character’s mind. Solaris is compassionate. Solaris is here to serve. Would we really benefit from what we think we should have done, instead of what we did, or what actually happened? Are some things, even the things that haunt us, best left alone?
    When Kevin enters the space station he finds Gibarian’s body and a second body. In Lem’s original story it was a nubile black woman, of Gibarian’s making. Dr. Gordon’s creation was her drug addicted daughter (not shown in this movie). In the original story and in the earlier Russian film by Tarkovsky, at the end the main character finds himself in the home of his long dead father after being assimilated by Solaris. In the current American version he finds himself in a simulated earth living with Rheya. He cuts his finger but it heals, defying the laws of physics, a synthetic world that seems real, yet it is an intricate simluation like the film The Thirteenth Floor, and Vanilla Sky. Seems to be saying like Cipher in the Marrix, I prefer to live in a dream existence to living in the real world if I had a choice, the fork in the road I didn’t take.

  11. Brad Zimmerman

    I have loved this movie since I first saw it in theatres. There are multiple understandings and interpretations of this version of the story created by Lem. His original explanation of the story was to create a story that deals with humans and an inhuman concept or a concept beyond human understanding or imagining. I love the 73 version and this one for different reasons but the 2001 version and the other versions including the book are all dealing with an alien or at least an unknown intelligence which has inhuman or unknown reasoning or logic when it interacts with humans. I always took the idea from all of them that ethics and morals were not a factor for its motivation or that motivation was even a factor when the unknown entity or presence had interaction through its phantoms with humans. In the end scene and throughout the 2001 version, the physical shape and general look of the unknown entity changes based upon the interaction it has with kelvin specifically and had not changed previously with any of the other characters or assumably the other dead characters as well. Yet the very last scene shows specifically the planet or entity has changed permanently or at least for a longer time than previously recorded by the crew and earth observers. Therefore it’s has always been my postulation that the planet(entity) had not ever established or made a connection that it understood on its communication level or within its conceptual potential up until that point. At least not enough to show a real or reality based sign that can be seen on a human level. But in the end…the one person or the one memory or experience or the one concept that it related to or wants to or can relate to is the either the feeling kelvin has for his wife or the concept that kelvin has for his former wife. It’s the feeling or concept of longing for something gone or possibly something else not understood in that experience(memory) kelvin has that the entity latched onto. I loved the movie because I always felt or wanted to think it was the idea of an alien falling in love with another alien(foreigner) based on a lack of communication ability and the love arising from a shared understanding of a common or learned concept whatever that concept or idea was may never be known to the audience perfectly but it was always to me a love story of a human and an alien. The attraction for either being was something obviously appealing to both at some level in their own potential for understanding. In the end though I want to believe the planet or entity did not understand or connect with anyone else because their thoughts and prominent motivation were selfish and not conducive to having a connection to other beings outside themselves. Kelvins motives and thoughts were of his love or a being outside himself. Anyways the last scene is of Solaris…but I always see it has having changed permanently because of Kelvin and his understanding of love or connection that Solaris has now. Whether kelvin is alive permanently inside of Solaris I don’t know but I always liked the idea of it. An alien falling in love with a alien but not for the exact same reasons. But love is still love. A connection.

  12. Alan R.

    Hmmm… I didn’t read all the replies but I get the feeling none of you really got this film. The main character never left earth. Everything after he gets grabbed by the ‘guys in white’ is all in his mind. He has basically lost his mind due to the death of his lover and can’t cope. So he creates this story in his mind of going to this space station. You can tell all the the people on the space station are parts of his own mind. He has to make a decision whether to let go of his love and move on with his life or hang on to it and lose his mind. Everything is a struggle to be sane again.

      1. Christian Sauvé Post author

        Read it twenty years ago. I may have forgotten a few bits.

  13. Buh Berto

    Rainy day Jan 18 2017.

    Finally saw this movie and as I first thought when it came out.

    It’s lame.

    Who cares.

    Coulda watched Goodtimes reruns.

  14. Michael John Dooner

    This is about the definition of humanity. Can it be copied, can it be studied, dissected and recreated in all it’s true forms regardless of physical damage and death. This film is a testament to affirmation of continuation! That our loved ones are always with us and in this scientific experiment the proof is real and tangible but entangled with a new definition of what it means to be human.


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